How did Internet Explorer Fail?

All the wrong moves by IE - unveiled!

Top Takeaways for Product Managers

The fall of Internet Explorer offers valuable lessons for product development and market leadership:

  • Don't Rest on Laurels: Innovation is paramount. Continuous improvement and adaptation to user needs are essential for long-term success.

  • Embrace New Technologies: Failure to adapt to new platforms (mobile) and evolving web standards can lead to irrelevance.

  • Listen to Developers: A strong relationship with developers fosters a healthy ecosystem and ensures smooth user experiences.

  • Security is Paramount: Unwavering commitment to user security builds trust and encourages continued use.

Source: Puppy Linux Forum

Internet Explorer (IE) was once the undisputed king of web browsers.

Bundled with the Windows operating system, it enjoyed a dominant market share for over a decade. However, by the early 2010s, IE had fallen from grace, eventually fading into obscurity by 2022.

This case study delves into the reasons behind IE's downfall, offering valuable insights for product development and market longevity.

Founding Story of IE

Internet Explorer's origin story isn't quite the tale of a revolutionary product from the ground up. It's more a story of recognizing an opportunity and capitalizing on existing technology.

The mid-1990s saw the rise of the World Wide Web, and Mosaic, an early graphical web browser, was gaining traction. In 1994, Microsoft, recognizing the potential of the internet, decided to enter the web browser game.

Borne from Mosaic (with a Twist)

Instead of building a browser from scratch, Microsoft leveraged existing technology.

They licensed the Mosaic code from Spyglass Inc., a company that commercially developed Mosaic based on the original work by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA).

The Internet Explorer Project Takes Flight

With a small team of around six people, Microsoft began development using the licensed Spyglass Mosaic codebase. The project was spearheaded by Thomas Reardon in 1994.

Thomas Reardon, Source:

A Bundled Birth on Windows (Not Quite a Freebie)

The first version, Internet Explorer 1.0, was launched in 1995. However, it wasn't a standalone product.

Internet Explorer 1.0, Source: StateTech Magazine

Initially, it was included as part of the Internet Jumpstart Kit in the Microsoft Plus! pack, an add-on for Windows 95. This meant users had to pay extra to access it.

Early Strides and Licensing Battles

Later in 1995, Microsoft released a free version of IE 1.5 for Windows NT.

This shift towards a free browser, bundled with the dominant Windows OS, was a key factor in IE's early success. However, it also led to legal battles with Spyglass over licensing fees.

Microsoft and Spyglass reached an updated agreement in 1997, following a dispute over Microsoft only paying the minimum amount required for each quarterly royalty.

Spyglass sued Microsoft for not telling them that it never had any plans to sell its new browser, and got an additional $8 million out of the deal.

Rising with the β€œBundling” Strategy

In the early days of the internet, back in the mid-1990s. Personal computers were becoming more common, but the internet itself was a new and confusing frontier for many users.

Unlike today, where web browsers are readily available and easy to download, things were trickier back then. This is where Internet Explorer's tight integration with Windows became a game-changer. Here's how it gave IE a huge advantage:

Pre-installed Convenience

Unlike competitors requiring separate downloads and installations, Internet Explorer was pre-installed on most Windows machines. This meant that when you bought a new computer with Windows, you automatically had a web browser ready to go.

No hunting around for downloads or complicated installation processes – just turn on your computer and start exploring the internet.

The Default Choice

Windows didn't just include IE, it made it the default web browser. When you clicked on a link in an email or another program, it automatically opened in Internet Explorer.

This eliminated any confusion for new users who might not have known there were different browsers available.

The Gateway to the Web

For many people, Internet Explorer became synonymous with the Internet itself. Because it was the first and only browser most users encountered, it became the gateway to exploring the vast and exciting World Wide Web.

This brand recognition further solidified IE's dominance in the early days.

This bundling strategy was incredibly effective. It removed all the initial hurdles that might have discouraged new users from venturing online.

With IE readily available and set as the default, millions easily accessed the internet for the first time, making Internet Explorer the browser of choice for a whole generation of users.

Internet Explorer Stagnation and Security Concerns

Internet Explorer's early success, built on its tight integration with Windows, ultimately became a double-edged sword. Here's how dominance led to stagnation and security concerns, paving the way for its downfall:

Resting on Laurels

With a dominant market share, Microsoft saw less pressure to innovate. New features and improvements became less frequent.

Competitors like Firefox and Chrome, on the other hand, were constantly pushing the boundaries, offering faster browsing experiences, more intuitive interfaces, and better support for emerging web technologies.

IE started to feel dated and clunky in comparison.

A Lagging Landscape

The web itself was constantly evolving. New technologies and web standards emerged, but IE struggled to keep pace. Websites started to look and function better on other browsers, leaving IE users with a subpar experience.

This created a sense of frustration for users who felt left behind.

Security Concerns

As the internet became more complex, so did the threats. Security vulnerabilities in IE became a major concern. Hackers exploited these flaws to steal user data, infect computers with malware, and launch cyberattacks.

News of these vulnerabilities eroded user trust and made IE a less secure web navigation option.

Frustration Builds

The combination of slow innovation, lagging web support, and security concerns led to a decline in user satisfaction. Users grew frustrated with crashes, slow loading times, and a lack of features compared to competitors.

This frustration ultimately pushed them to seek alternative browsers that offered a smoother and more secure experience.

Essentially, Internet Explorer's early advantage became a trap. Without the constant pressure to innovate and adapt, it fell behind the times, leaving users vulnerable and frustrated.

This paved the way for a new generation of browsers that offered a more secure and user-friendly experience.

How Firefox and Chrome Ousted Internet Explorer

While Internet Explorer basked in its comfortable dominance, the tides were starting to turn. New browsers emerged, offering features and experiences that left IE in the dust. Here's how Firefox and Chrome rose to prominence:

Firefox (2004): A Champion for Security and Speed

  • Launched by Mozilla, a non-profit organization, Firefox quickly gained a reputation for being faster and more secure than IE.

  • It prioritized open-source development, allowing a community of programmers to contribute to improvements and security fixes.

  • This focus on security resonated with tech-savvy users who were increasingly concerned about online threats.

  • Firefox also offered a more customizable experience, allowing users to personalize their browsing interface with add-ons and extensions.

Chrome (2008): Speed Demon with a Google Hug

  • Google entered the browser wars with Chrome, a browser built for speed and simplicity.

  • Chrome's minimalist design offered a clean interface that focused on the web content itself.

  • Under the hood, Chrome utilized a powerful new engine that rendered webpages significantly faster than IE.

  • Additionally, Chrome seamlessly integrated with Google services like Gmail, Search, and Maps, creating a convenient ecosystem for users heavily reliant on Google products.

  • Google's vast resources allowed for frequent updates and innovation, keeping Chrome at the forefront of web browsing technology.

These new browsers offered a compelling alternative to the stagnant Internet Explorer. They were faster, more secure, and offered features that catered to the evolving needs of web users.

Missing the Smartphone Revolution

The rise of mobile devices marked a major turning point in internet usage. As people shifted from bulky desktops to smartphones and tablets, the limitations of Internet Explorer became even more apparent.

Here's how IE's failure to adapt to the mobile landscape sealed its fate:

A Desktop-Centric Mindset

Microsoft's development focus remained primarily on the desktop experience. Internet Explorer Mobile, a scaled-down version for phones, lacked the functionality and user-friendliness of competitors like Safari on iPhones and Chrome on Android devices.

Features like smooth scrolling, optimized layouts for smaller screens, and touch-friendly interfaces were often missing, making browsing cumbersome and frustrating on mobile devices.

The App Gap

Mobile browsing evolved beyond just accessing websites. The rise of app stores and mobile-specific applications offered a whole new way to interact with the internet.

However, IE Mobile offered limited support for these apps, further restricting its usefulness in the mobile ecosystem.

The Power of Native Integration

Apple and Google built their mobile browsers (Safari and Chrome) directly into their operating systems (iOS and Android respectively). This tight integration ensured seamless performance, data synchronization between devices, and a more cohesive user experience.

IE Mobile, offered as a separate download or pre-installed on a limited number of phones, couldn't compete with this native advantage.

A Missed Opportunity

The mobile internet boom was a golden opportunity for IE to reinvent itself. However, Microsoft's slow response and lack of focus on mobile development allowed competitors to capture the market share.

By the time Microsoft launched a more competitive mobile browser (Edge Mobile), it was already too late. Users were firmly entrenched in the ecosystems of Safari and Chrome.

The inability to adapt to the mobile revolution proved to be a fatal blow for Internet Explorer. The dominance it enjoyed on desktops could not translate to the new era of mobile web browsing.

Users demanded a smooth, intuitive, and app-friendly experience that IE Mobile simply couldn't deliver. This ultimately relegated Internet Explorer to the sidelines, a relic of a bygone era in web browsing.


Internet Explorer dominated early web browsing thanks to its bundling with Windows. However, slow innovation, security issues, and a lackluster mobile presence led to its downfall.

Faster, more secure browsers like Firefox and Chrome captured the market, while IE failed to adapt to the mobile revolution. This cautionary tale highlights the need for continuous innovation and user focus in the ever-changing tech landscape.

Thank U Reaction GIF by Mauro Gatti

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